Ethics in AI-based online assessment in higher education

New chapter published focussing on ethics in online assessment related to artificial intelligence.

Heil, J., & Ifenthaler, D. (2024). Ethics in AI-based online assessment in higher education. In S. Caballe, J. Casas-Roma, & J. Conesa (Eds.), Ethics in online AI based systems (pp. 55–70). Elsevier. 

Ethics in Online AI-based Systems: Risks and Opportunities in Current Technological Trends

The field of online assessment, especially artificial intelligence (AI)-based online assessment, is evolving rapidly and not only allows for automated assessments but also for access to vast amounts of assessment data that can be utilized to inform learners, teachers, and schools, as well as education systems (Webb & Ifenthaler, 2018). Online assessment is designed and implemented in multiple dif- ferent modes in practice. The process can be performed by peers (Huisman et al., 2018), teachers, an automated system, or even the student themselves (Conrad & Openo, 2018). Regarding the format, online assessment bears the potential for formative support throughout the learning process (Gikandi et al., 2011) for teachers as well as learners but also as a summative assessment at the end of a learn- ing segment. The type of tasks utilized in online assessment range from automated quizzes to ePortfolios (McWhorter et al., 2013) or short-answer questions and essays, including natural language processing (Reilly et al., 2016).

While there is currently still a lack of implementation in the higher education practice (Buckingham Shum & McKay, 2018), research in the field shows high potential for learning analytics as indicated by systematic reviews (Ifenthaler & Yau, 2020; Larrabee Sønderlund et al., 2019). Considering the signifi- cant role that assessment plays in the learning process as well as the rapidly evolving opportunities con- cerning AI-based online assessment, it is vital to consider the ethical aspects and possible hurdles.

This chapter first identifies the role of AI in online assessment in educational contexts based on the current literature. Possible benefits and applications are elaborated on and defined. Following the identified areas, possible ethical concerns and threats are identified. Finally, this chapter pre- sents guidelines, which support the avoidance of potential ethical hazards and can be applied to ensure ethically sound implementation of AI-based online assessment.

You may also like...